Bibliography/ Reference Help

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Proper Format for Sources

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History

     of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993.


Encyclopedia Article   (well known reference books)

Sturgeon, Theodore. "Science Fiction." The Encyclopedia Americana.

     International ed. 1995.



Lynch, Tim. "DSN Trials and Tribble-ations Review." Psi Phi: Bradley's      Science Fiction Club. 1996. Bradley University. 8 Oct. 1997 <http://>.

Newspaper or Magazine Article on the Internet

Andreadis, Athena. "The Enterprise Finds Twin Earths Everywhere It

     Goes, But Future Colonizers of Distant Planets Won't Be So Lucky."

     Astronomy Jan. 1999: 64- . Academic Universe. Lexis-Nexis. B.

     Davis Schwartz Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 7 Feb. 1999 <http://>.


  • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author, interfiling books, articles, etc.
  • Doublespace all lines.
  • Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces (or one half inch).
  • If no author is given, start with the title.
  • Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July.
  • If the paging of a magazine or newspaper article is continued elswhere in the issue, include only the first page followed by a plus sign (ex. 25+.).
  • If the encyclopedia does not arrange its articles alphabetically, treat the encyclopedia article as if it were a book article. Specific volume and page numbers are cited in the text, not in the list of references.
  • Gale Reference Book: cite the original source being reprinted as shown under Book, Journal Article, Newspaper or Magazine Article, etc. The example shows a Magazine Article. Then include the citation information for the reference book.
  • Websites: include the title of the web page, the name of the entire web site, the organization that posted it (this may be the same as the name of the website). Also include the full date the page was created or last updated (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it.
  • Internet Magazine Articles: Include:
    • The full date of the article (day, month, year if available) and the date you looked at it;
      • If you are citing a journal instead of a magazine, include the volume (and issue number) and date as shown under the Journal Style above.
    • As for page numbers, different databases will provide different information. Include the range of pages (ex. 25-28.); or the starting page followed by a hyphen, a blank space, and a period (ex. 64- .); or the total number of pages or paragraphs (ex. 12 pp. or 33 pars.). If no page information is given, then leave it out.
    • The name of the database (underlined) and the company that created it.
    • The library or other organization (and its location) that provided you with access to the database.
    • If the web address (URL) of the article is very long, you only need to include the URL of the database's home page.